What you think it means: Something that is funny。你认为单词的含义是：滑稽的事。
What it really means: Contrary to what you are expecting。单词的真正含义是：事与愿违的。
This is a famous one because so many people get this wrong so often. It’s also kind of hard to explain, so we’ll use an example. The Titanic was boasted about as being 100% unsinkable and then in 1912 it was sunk anyway. That is what is called cosmic irony. When a starving vegetarian eats a pepperoni pizza, that is what is called situational irony。这是一个典型的单词，因为经常有人用错。解释起来可能有点困难，所以我们还是举例说明吧。泰坦尼克号号称100%不会沉没，但1912年它还是意外沉没了，这就叫“宇宙反讽”。要是某个饿得不行的素食者忍不住吃了块香肠披萨，那就叫“情境反讽”。
There are other kinds too, such as dramatic irony and Socratic irony. Believe it or not, sarcasm
is actually irony. When you say something sarcastically, your tone and your words mean two opposite things. That is ironic. Irony can be funny but not everything funny is irony。当然还有其他分类，比如“喜剧式反讽”和“苏格拉底式反讽”。不管你信不信，irony其实和sarcasm(讽刺)是一个意思。当说到某件事很讽刺时，你的语调和用词意在表达完全相反的两种情况。这就是ironic(反讽)。反讽可以是滑稽的，但并不是所有滑稽的事都可以称得上“反讽”。
What you think it means: A tragedy or something unfortunate。你认为单词的含义是：悲剧或不幸的事。
What it really means: A mockery or parody。单词的真正含义是：拙劣的模仿或恶搞。
This is another one that people have wrong fairly frequently. You’ve heard people call 9/11 a travesty. Truth be told 9/11 was a tragedy. A travesty is actually a mockery or a parody. One might say that a Weird Al Yankovic album is a travesty. With how often this word is associated with tragedy, we wouldn’t be shocked if that definition were eventually added as an acceptable meaning. Until then, it doesn’t mean anything bad happened。
What you think it means: The one, the only. The best。你认为单词的含义是：某个，唯一的，最好的。
What it really means: The last item of a list。单词的真正含义是：列表中的最后一项。
Some people do actually use this one properly. You may see someone list off a bunch of things and hear them say, “Okay, at the store we need eggs, milk, juice, and ultimately, butter。” That is actually the proper use of ultimate. There is no other context or added context. It simply means the last one。
What you think it means: To have a conversation。你认为单词的含义是：进行交谈。
What it really means: Nothing。单词的真正含义是：压根没有这个词。
Conversate actually doesn’t exist and I’ll prove it to you. Go into a program that underlines words with red if they’re spelled wrong. Now type out conversate. Did you see the red line? Conversate was meant to be a mixture of conversation and converse and be used as a verb. However, converse is a verb and there really isn’t a need for a second verb to describe the same action.Conversate.
What you think it means: To skim or browse。你认为单词的含义是：略读或浏览。
What it really means: To observe in depth。单词的真正含义是：深入观察。
When you peruse something, you are actually taking a very close look at it. When you’re at a record store and you’re just running through a stack of records, you are just browsing. If you pick up a record and look at the artist, track list, and additional information on the back, then your are perusing.
What you think it means: Amused。你认为单词的含义是：愉快的。
What it really means: Confused。单词的真正含义是：困惑的。
This is one of the many words on this list that will make you strongly dislike the English language. Despite looking all but identical to the word amused, bemused doesn’t even come close to meaning the same thing. If you are bemused then you are actually confused.
What you think it means: To do something voluntarily by choice。你认为单词的含义是：志愿选择做某事。
What it really means: To be forced or obligated to doing something。单词的真正含义是：被迫或有义务做某事。
This is one that people get wrong and it’s rather understandable. The real definition is very close to the definition people generally use. The difference is the motivation. When people say compelled, they think the person wants to perform the action. In fact, they are forced to do it regardless of their personal feelings. Here’s an example. When you’re in court, you are compelled to give honest testimony. You may not want to, but it doesn’t matter because you have to.
What you think it means: To feel ill。你认为单词的含义是：感觉不舒服。
What it really means: To cause feelings of illness。单词的真正含义是：令人不舒服的。
This is another understandable mishap
that a lot of people make. If you actually feel sick then you are nauseated. The object that made you feel ill is nauseous. Here’s how this works. If you’re at an amusement park and you’re sitting next to a full trash can, the fumes from the trash may make you feel ill. That means the fumes from the trash can are nauseous because they are making you feel nauseated.
What you think it means: Repetitive。你认为单词的含义是：重复的。
What it really means: Unnecessarily excessive。单词的真正含义是：过剩的。
This one is tough because you can use it wrong but unintentionally use it right. When you repeat something a bunch of times, it can become redundant, but redundant expands far beyond just repeating things over and over. A popular thing companies are doing now is firing people but instead of calling it “getting fired,” they call it “eliminating redundancies。” The premise being that the employee they’re firing is unnecessary and excessive and they are thus eliminating them. In pretty much any scenario where there is simply too much of something, it is redundant.
What you think it means: Huge, enormous。你认为单词的含义是：巨大的，庞大的。
What it really means: Profoundly immoral or evil。单词的真正含义是：极其不道德的或邪恶的。
Don’t beat yourself up over this one because no one knows this one off the top of their head. Enormity sounds like enormous and as with many of our other examples, here we expect words that sound alike to have similar meanings. Enormity simply means really evil. An example of how to use it is the following: “The enormity of the crimes committed by the Nazis in World War II。” It doesn’t mean the enormous crimes, it means the heinous crimes.
What you think it means: Fantastic, good。你认为单词的含义是：妙极了，极好的。
What it really means: Horrific, to inspire fear。单词的真正含义是：可怖的，令人害怕的。
This is another one that we expect will be changed in the dictionary eventually because barely anyone uses the real meaning anymore. When people say they feel terrific, they mean to say they feel fantastic. An example of something terrific is King Kong. You see a giant monster and it inspires fear. We’re going to loop awesome in with this one too. Awesome simply means to inspire awe and people often use it to describe something really good.
What you may think it means: To cause something to change。你以为单词的含义是：引起某事发生变化。
What it really means: An event that causes a change。单词的真正含义是：引起变化事件。
A lot of people staunchly
defend the wrong definition of this and it’s understandable. When action A causes a change in object B, action A affected object B and object B has been affected. Effect is an event that causes a change. In our prior example, action A is, in and of itself, an effect because it affects things. It’s admittedly confusing to explain but easy to remember. If it’s a noun, it’s an effect. If it’s a verb, it’s an affect.
What you think it means: Bored。你以为单词的含义是：无趣的。
What it really means: Neutral。单词的真正含义是：中立的。
A good way to remember this one is that there is a word that means bored and it’s uninterested. If you’re uninterested, you’re bored. Being disinterested is the long-form equivalent of stating that you don’t care about something.
What you think it means: Without regard。你以为单词的含义是：不管怎样。
What it really means: Nothing。单词的真正含义是：它也是不存在的。
Like conversate above, irregardless isn’t actually a word. When people say irregardless, they actually mean to say regardless. Regardless means without regard. Irregardless has been used so often that it actually is in the dictionary now and that’s kind of sad. Even though it is technically there, there are a large number of people who don’t consider it a word. You can save yourself a couple of keystrokes and a tongue lashing by just using regardless.
What you think it means: Severe。你以为单词的含义是：剧烈的。
What it really means: Over the course of a long time。单词的真正含义是：历时长久的。
This is definitely one that people ought to know better. When you have severe pain, it is just severe pain. If you have chronic pain, you have been in pain for a long, long time. Chronic conditions and diseases are called chronic because they won’t go away and not because they’re overly severe.
What you think it means: For example。你以为单词的含义是：比如。
What it really means: In other words。单词的真正含义是：换句话说。
This is one among a number of shortened words that confuse people. Here’s a quick guide on how to use them. Et cetera is etc., example is ex. or e.g., and in other words is i.e. When you use i.e. you’re essentially putting it there to let people know that you’re going to be stating the same information in different words. Here’s how it really works. It’s June and I moved into my new apartment in April, i.e., two months ago.
这是一个容易给人造成困惑的缩略词，下面就简洁地告诉大家如何使用它。Et cetera(以此类推)的缩略词是etc.，example(比如)的缩略词是ex。或e.g.，而in other words(换句话说)的缩略词是i.e.。如果你使用i.e.，就表示你在换用不同的词来表述同一个信息。下面就是具体用法：现在是六月，我是四月份搬进新公寓的，i.e。(换句话说)，两个月前。
What you think it means: To destroy or annihilate你以为单词的含义是：毁坏或击败。
What it really means: To destroy ten percent。单词的真正含义是：10%毁坏。
This one is really goofy and one day this won’t be true. For the time being, decimate actually means removing only ten percent of something. If you know a little bit about words it’s not difficult to figure out. The prefix “dec” means ten. However, the traditional definition of this word is antiquated and it’ll probably be changed eventually. Until then, it’s technically correct to use a word like exterminate or annihilate instead.
What you think it means: A cure。你以为单词的含义是：治愈。
What it really means: A cure for a lot of things。单词的真正含义是：万灵药。
This one is easy to confuse because the explanation is virtually the same even if the definitions are vastly different. A panacea is something that cures a lot of things all at once. For instance, penicillin is a panacea. It cures a bunch of diseases. The flu vaccine is not a panacea because it only protects against the flu.
What you think it means: Lucky。你以为单词的含义是：幸运的。
What it really means: By chance。单词的真正含义是：偶然碰巧。
There is a difference between luck and chance. Unfortunately, people use the two interchangeably, so much so that it’s difficult to explain the differences anymore. Lucky is an event that happens by chance that can be described as fortunate. Winning the lottery is lucky. Fortuitous means simply by chance. For instance if you drop your basketball and it bounces into the road and gets hit by a car, that’s a fortuitous instance. It’s neutral, so it can be good or bad things that happen by chance.
What you think it means: A lot of something。你以为单词的含义是：很多事物。
What it really means: More than is needed。单词的真正含义是：多余。
This is one I use incorrectly all the time. In fact, I almost used it a couple of times in this very article. Plethora simply means that there is more of something than is needed. For instance, you may think that 5,000 people is a plethora of people. However, when you put them into a hockey arena that seats 13,000 people, it’s actually less than half capacity and therefore not a plethora. If you had 13,500 people in that same arena, that would be a plethora of people.
Total means exactly what you think it means but total is used unnecessarily on a frequent basis. When there is a total of 50 people who do something, the total is 50 whether or not you use the word “total。” Or you might hear someone say that they were totally surprised. Surprise is not a conditional emotion. You were either surprised or not. The use of total didn’t add anything of value to the sentence. In most cases, the definition is correct but using the word is repetitive when put in context with the rest of the sentence.
What you think it means: Figuratively。你以为单词的含义是：象征地。
What it really means: Actually。单词的真正含义是：确切地。
This is something that has come about relatively recently and my generation may have helped propagate this one. Literally means actually. When something is literally true, it is actually true. If I haven’t seen my friend in literally five years then I actually haven’t seen them in five years. People use literally along with hyperbole to show an emotion: “I haven’t had Chinese food in literally a million years。” This is meant to denote that the person hasn’t had Chinese food in a while. The word those people actually want is figuratively. They figuratively haven’t had Chinese food in a million years. They probably literally hadn’t had it in a few days or weeks。
What you think it means: What is permissible。你以为单词的含义是：可行的。
What it really means: What is possible。单词的真正含义是：可能的。
This is one you have to nip in the bud in childhood because it’s much harder to correct in adulthood. When you can do something, you have capacity within you to perform that action regardless of whether or not you actually do it. I can bang my head into my desk but I absolutely will not do it. When people use can incorrectly it is because they mean to use the word “may。” When you ask someone if they can open the door, you did not ask them to open the door. You asked them if they were capable of opening the door. If you wish for them to perform the task, you should ask if they will open the door. When you ask if you can have something, you’re not asking someone to give it to you. You’re asking if you have the capacity to own it. If you need something, ask if you may have it.
What you think it means: That something is broken or missing pieces。你以为单词的含义是：某物碎了或缺了部分。
What it really means: Simply that it’s broken。单词的真正含义是：某物坏了。
You’ll see this one a lot in Amazon reviews. People will say that their unit came defective because it was missing a screw or pieces in the box. That’s actually incorrect. What they mean to say is that their product is deficient. It’s missing pieces, it is not actually broken. The machine may work perfectly fine once the missing pieces have been re-added, which means that it actually isn’t defective at all.
What you think it means: Old, out of date。你以为单词的含义是：旧的，过时的。
What it really means: Not produced, used, or needed。单词的真正含义是：未生产的，未使用的，不需要的。
You’ll see this one in the tech industry a lot. People in tech article comments will comment that a phone is obsolete when they really mean that it’s out of date. The literal definition of obsolete is an item that it isn’t produced, needed, or used anymore. An example of this is is the steam engine. It’s largely inefficient compared to today’s combustion engine and even more inefficient than the emerging electric engines. Thus, steam engines are not used, produced, or needed anymore. Yes, they are also old and out of date, but obsolete is kind of the next step after old and out of date.
26. Wrap up总结
The English language is a finicky one but it’s also ever changing. Words are updated and definitions change. New words are added every year and some are retired. Very few people will ever master the entire language and the rest of us will just have to do the best we can!