英语语法经典例题800例:非谓语动词(例题2)

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11. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor’s office.

A. put B. to put

C. putting D. having put

【陷阱】容易误选B或C,误认为这考查非谓语动词的用法。

【分析】正确答案选A。句中的took, ran, put, drove 为四并列的谓语动词,其时态应一致。类似地如(答案选A):

I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the station.

A. paid B. paying

C. to pay D. having paid

但是,下面一题稍有不同:

Hearing the news, he rushed out, ______ the book ______ on the table and disappeared into the distance.

A. left; lain open B. leaving; lying open

C. leaving; lie opened D. left; lay opened

此题答案选B,leaving 在此表结果,lying open 与其前的动词leave有关,leave 后接现在分词作宾语补足语,表示使某人或某物处于做某事的状态中。

12. The boss insisted that every minute ______ made full use of ______ the work well.

A. be, to do B. was, doing

C. be, doing D. was, to do

【陷阱】容易误选B。

【分析】其实正确答案是A。分析如下:

(1) 第一空填 be,是因为insisted 后接that从句,从句谓语要用“should+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气,其中的should也可省略。

(2) 第二空要填to do,是因为此句谓语为被动语态,假若将此句转换成主动语态,则是 …should make full use of every minute to do the work well, 句中涉及 make use of … to do sth (利用……做某事)这一结构。另外,还有 make the most of (尽量利用),make the best of (尽量利用)等短语也可能用于此类试题。请看以下类似例子:

(1) The old professor told us every part of the materials should be made use of ______ the power station.

A. to build B. building

C. build D. built

此题答案选 A,不是 B。为便于理解,可先考虑以下结构:

…make use of every part of the materials to build the power station

由此可见,make use of 的宾语是 every part of the materials,其后的不定式 to build the power station 为目的状语。

(2) Does the way you thought of _______ the water clean make any sense?

A. making B. to make

C. how to make D. having made

此题答案选B,不是A。句子主语是 the way,you thought of 是修饰主语的定语从句,不定式 to make the water clean 也是修饰主语的定语,也就是说,句子主语带有两个定语修饰语。

13. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see ______ the next year.

A. carried out B. carrying out

C. carry out D. to carry out

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】答案选A。此句结构较复杂,现分析如下:

(1) that they would like to see _____ the next year 是修饰名词 the plan 的定语从句。

(2) 由于 the plan 与空格处的 carry out 有被动关系,故填过去分词 carried out。

请做以下类似试题:

(1) Who do you think you’d like _____ with you, a boy or a girl?

A. to have go B. to have to go

C. to have gone D. having to go

在确定答案之前,我们先来看看下面这个句子:

I think I’d like to have a boy go with me.

句中的 go 要用原形,这是因为其前有表示使役的动词have。在此句中,假若对名词a boy 提问,便可得出:

Who do you think you’d like to have go with you?

对照上面一题,答案很显然是A。

(2) Who did the boss _____ his car this time?

A. make wash B. make to wash

C. make washing D. making to wash

在做此题之前,也请先看看下面这个句子:

The boss made Jack wash his car this time.

假若对句中的名词Jack 提问,便可得出:

Who did the boss make wash his car this time?

由此可知上面题答案为A。

(3) You can never imagine what great difficulty I had ______ your house all by myself.

A. found B. finding

C. to find D. for finding

此题答案选B。考查的基本结构是 have great difficulty (in) doing sth。

14. How happy we are! The holiday we have been looking forward _______ at last.

A. to has come B. to have come

C. to having come D. has come

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】其实正确答案是A。大家知道,短语 look forward to意为“盼望”,其中的 to 是介词,而不是不定式符号,所以后接动词要用动名词,许多同学据此便选择了C。但问题是,句中介词 to 的宾语不是have come,而是the holiday。正解的句子分析是:the holiday为句子主语,we have been looking forward to 是修饰主语的定语从句(介词 to 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,被省略),has come 是句子谓语。请做以下类似试题:

(1) The man you referred to _____ just now.

A. comes B. come

C. coming D. came

答案选D,句子主语为 the man,you referred to 为修饰 the man 的定语从句,空白处填 came,为句子谓语。

(2) The theory he sticks to ______ to be of no use in our studies.

A. proves B. prove

C. proving D. be proved

答案选A,he sticks to 是修饰主语 the theory 的定语从句,句子的基本结构为 The theory proves to be of no use in our studies.

(3) The work he devoted his time to _____ worth praising.

A. was B. be

C. being D. been

答案选A,he devoted his time to 是修饰主语 the work 的定语从句。句子的基本结构为 The work was worth praising.

(4) I think this is the very work that we must finish ____ her.

A. to help B. help

C. helping D. helped

答案是 A。句中空格处填的动词help 并不是 finish 的宾语,正确的句子分析是:that I must finish 是修饰名词 the very work 的定语从句,finish 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,其后的不定式 to help her 是目的状语。

(5) Which do you enjoy ____ your weekend, swimming or fishing?

A. spending B. being spent

C. spend D. to spend

答案选 D。enjoy 的宾语是句首的疑问词 which,不是其后的动词 spending。此题中的 to spend… 用作目的状语。

(5) What the boy enjoys _____ to have a room of his own.

A. being B. to be

C. is D. are

答案选C,而不选A。what the boy enjoys 是主语从句,空格处填的 is 为谓语动词。

(6) Nothing that he suggested _____ to be of any use.

A. prove B. proved C. proving D. to prove

答案选B,而不选C。句子主语是 nothing,that he suggested 是修饰主语的定语从句,suggested 的宾语是引导该定语从句的关系代词 that,而不是其后的动词;句子谓语是 proved。全句意为“他建议的情况没有一条是有用的。”

(7) The old house we paid a visit _____ at the top of the hill.

A. standing B. to stand

C. to standing D. to stands

答案选D。we paid a visit to 是修饰the old house 的定语从句,句中的stands 为主句谓语。

(8) The life he is now used _____ quite different from ours.

A. is B. to be

C. to being D. to is

答案选D。句中he is now used to 是修饰 the life 的定语从句,to 后的动词 is 是句子的谓语,句意为“他现在习惯的这种生活与我们的生活很不相同”。

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