英语语法经典例题800例:非谓语动词(例题1)

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编辑点评: 英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。小编为大家整理了小学英语语法大全,本章主要介绍英语语法中的句子成分,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助!

1. Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could _______ a good college.

A. enter B. to enter

C. entering D. entered

【陷阱】容易误选A。有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 enter。

【分析】其实正确答案应是B。此句为省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为Everyone in our class was working hard and doing what we could do to enter a good college。即句中的不定式短语(to enter a good college)是用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成谓语。请再看类似例句:

(1) They did what they could to comfort her. 他们尽量安慰她。

(2) They did everything they could to save her life. 他们尽一切力量拯救她的性命。

(3) He studies as hard as he could to catch up with his classmates. 他拼命学习以便赶上他的同学。

值得指出的是,这也并不是说今后只要遇到类似结构的题就一定选带to不定式。请看以下试题:

(4) He ran as fast as he could _____ to catch the early bus.

A. to hope B. hope

C. hoping D. hoped

此题的答案是 C不是A,其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。

(5) He spent every minute he could _____ spoken English.

A. practise B. to practise

C. practising D. practised

此题答案选 C,这与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend … (in) doing sth。若将此句补充完整,即为 He spent every minute he could spend in practising spoken English.

(6) Before going abroad he devoted all he could ____D____ his oral English.

A. improve B. to improve

C. improving D. to improving

此题答案选D,注意两点:一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配,意为“把……贡献给……”;二是其中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词。

2. He knows nothing about it, so he can’t help _______ any of your work.

A. doing B. to do

C. being doing D. to be done

【陷阱】容易误选B,根据 can’t help doing sth 这一结构推出。

【分析】其实答案应选A。比较以下结构:

can’t help to do sth = 不能帮助做某事

can’t help doing sth = 禁不住做某事,情不自禁地做某事

又如下面一题,答案也是 B:

She can’t help ____ the house because she’s busy making a cake.

A cleaning B. to clean

C. cleaned D. being cleaned

再请看以下试题:

While shopping, people sometimes can’t help _____ into buying something they don’t really need.

A. to persuade B. persuading

C. being persuaded D. be persuaded

此题应选C,句中的 can’t help 意为“禁不住”(注意根据句意用被动形式)。

3. All her time _______ experiments, she has no time for films.

A. devoted to do B. devoted to doing

C. devoting to doing D. is devoted to doing

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】此题最佳答案为B。现分析如下:

(1) devote 意为“致力于,献身于”,主要用 devote…to…或be devoted to,其中的to 是介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不用不定式。

(2) 选A错误:若将 do 改为 doing 则可以。

(3) 选B正确:all her time devoted to doing experiments为独立主格结构,用作状语。

(4) 选C错误:因为all her time 与 devote 为被动关系,故应将devoting改为devoted。

(5) 选D错误:若单独看 All her time is devoted to doing experiments,此句并没有错,但问题是逗号前后两个简单句没有必要的连接方式,所以从整体上看仍不对,假若在后一句的句首加上and或so,则可选D,或将D将中的is 改为 being也可选它。

请做以下类似题(答案均选A):

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, we’re ready to start.

A. completed B. have been completed

C. had been completed D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn’t help but______ him.

A. being, support B. was, support

C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

比较以下各题,答案选B,因为句中使用了并列连词and:

(1) All the preparations for the project ______, and we’re ready to start.

A. completed B. have been completed

C. had been completed D. been completed

(2) Such _______ the case, I couldn’t help but______ him.

A. being, support B. was, support

C. has been, supporting D. is, to support

4. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ______ it more difficult.

A. not make B. not to make

C. not making D. do not make

【陷阱】容易误选C,受题干中的逗号的影响,认为是现在分词表结果的用法。

【分析】其实答案应选B,句中的逗号相当于连词 and 或 but,not to make it more difficult 是对逗号前的不定式 to make life easier 的补充说明。此句的意思是“新技术的目的是为了使生活变得更容易,而不是使生活变得更困难”。两个不定式同时用以说明句子主语 purpose 的内容。请做以下类似试题(答案选B):

The purpose of the scheme is not to help the employers but _____ work for young people.

A. provide B. to provide

C. providing D. provided

5. The murderer was brought in, with his hands ______ behind his back.

A. to be tied B. being tied

C. tied D. having tied

【陷阱】容易误选B。

【分析】最佳答案为C。从意义上看,hands 与 tie 的关系应属被动关系,故排除D。在A、B、C三个选项中,选项A比较容易排除,因为不定式表示将来意义,在此与语境不符。现将B和C作一比较:B为现在分词的被动式,它表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表进行,也就是说his hands being tied 的实际意思是“他的手正在被捆住”,这显然与语境不符。而C为过去分词,它也表示两层意义,一是表被动,二是表示动词的完成或完成后的状态,此句中的 with his hands tied behind his back 可视为手被捆在背后的一种状态。由此可知最佳答案为C。请看下面一题:

Anyone ______ trying to take knives on heard flights would be caught by the police.

A. finds B. found

C. being found D. will find

答案选B而不选C,其中的过去分词表示被动和完成。

比较下面两题,最佳答案是D不是A,现在分词的被动式表示被动和进行:

(1) The court hears about 120 cases a year; visitors are welcome to see a case ______.

A. argued B. to be argued

C. to be arguing D. being argued

(2) The silence of the library was sometimes broken by an occasional cough or by the sound of pages _______.

A. turned B. having turned

C. to be turned D. being turned

6. Remind me _______ the medicine tomorrow.

A. of taking B. taking

C. to take D. take

【陷阱】容易误选A。受 remind sb of (doing) sth 这一常用结构的影响。

【分析】最佳答案为C。比较以下三个结构:

remind sb of [about] sth = 使某人想起某事

remind sb of doing sth = 提醒某人做过某事(暗示动作已发生)

remind sb to do sth = 提醒某人去做某事(暗示动作尚未发生)

请看两个例句:

I reminded him of his promise. 我提醒他做过的诺言。

My wife reminded me of seeing that film. 我妻子提醒我曾经看过那部电影。

Can you remind me to phone her tomorrow? 你明天能否提醒我给她打电话?

7. Once your business becomes international, _____ constantly will be part of your life.

A. you fly B. your flight

C. flight D. flying

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】最佳答案为D。由于空格后出现了constantly这一副词,这就说明不能选B或C,因为B、C均为名词,不能受副词 constantly 的修饰。A和D均是可能的,因为其中有动词 fly。但若选A,you fly 是一个主谓结构,与其后的谓语 will be 相冲突,所以只能选D,即动名词flying在此用作主语。

8. Not only should you get used ______ under difficult conditions but you also you pay more attention ______ your work well.

A. to work, to do B. to working, to doing

C. to work, to doing D. to working, to do

【陷阱】容易误选A,认为两个空白处均应填不定式。

【分析】正确答案为B,因为 get used to与pay attention to 这两个结构中的to均为介词,不是不定式符号,故后接动词时要用动名词,不能动词原形。类似地,以下各结构中的 to 也是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时也应用动名词,而不是动词原形:

look forward to doing sth 盼望做某事

be opposed to doing sth 反对做某事

object to doing sth反对做某事

stick to doing sth 坚持做某事

get down to doing sth 开始做某事

take to doing sth 喜欢上做某事

admit to doing 承认做了某事

pay attention to doing sth 注意做某事

devote one’s time to doing sth 把某人的时间用于(奉献于)做某事

be equal to doing sth 等于做某事,能胜任做某事

What do you say to doing sth 你认为做某事怎么样

9. Both of my parents insisted _______ a computer for me, but I don’t think it is necessary.

A. to buy B. buying

C. on buying D. in buying

【陷阱】容易误选B,误认为insist后不能接不定式,但可以接动名词。

【分析】答案应选C。其实,动词 insist 后既不能接不定式也不能接动名词,因为insist 通常用作不及物动词;若语义上需接宾语,要借助介词 on或upon,即用于 insist on [upon] (doing) sth;但它有时的确也可用作及物动词,不过其宾语通常只能是 that 从句,而不能是普通的名词、代词或动名词。如:

He insisted on seeing her home. 他坚持送她回家。

I insisted that he (should) stay. 我坚持要他留下。

10. “Do you have anything more ______, sir?” “No. You can have a rest or do something else.”

A. typing B. to be typed

C. typed D. to type

【陷阱】容易误选D,根据 have sth to do 这一常用结构推出。

【分析】最佳答案是B。确实,在“have+宾语+不定式”结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have some clothes to wash等,即尽管其中的 some clothes 与其后的不定式 to wash 具有被动关系,但却习惯上用主动式表示被动意义。但值得指出的是,这类句型的主语与其后的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have some clothes to wash 中的 to wash 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而上面一题的情形有所不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 you来完成的,而是由说话者“我”来完成的。比较:

Are you going to Shanghai? Do you have anything to take to your son?

你要去上海吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?

I’m going to Shanghai next week. I have a lot of things to take with me.

下个星期我要去上海,我随身要带很多东西去。

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