英语语法经典例题800例:虚拟语气(例题)

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编辑点评: 英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。小编为大家整理了小学英语语法大全,本章主要介绍英语语法中的句子成分,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助!

1. I forget where I read the article, or I _____ it to you now.

A. will show B. would show

C. am going to show D. am showing

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】正确答案选B。根据上文的语境可知句中的 or 隐含有一个虚拟的条件,即 or=if I didn’t forget where I read the article(要是我没忘记我在哪儿读过这篇文章的话——但事实上忘了)。

2. “It looks as if he were drunk.” “So it does. _____.”

A. He’d better give up drinking

B. He shouldn’t have drunk so much

C. Health is more important than drink

D. I wonder why he is always doing so

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选,主要是受句中 drunk 一词的影响。

【分析】最佳答案为D。关键信息是It looks as if he were drunk 中的虚拟语气,句子既然用了虚拟语气,也就是说,“他喝醉了”不是事实,只是他的言行好像是醉了,所以此题的最佳答案是D。

3. “Mary looks hot and dry” “So _____ you if you had so high a fever.”

A. do B. are

C. will D. would

【陷阱】容易误选A或C。选A者,认为前后两句的动词性质应一致;选C者,认为其后带有if 条件状语从句,从语气上看,主句应用将来时态。

【分析】此题最佳答案为D。分析如下:

(1) “so + 助动词 + 主语”是一个很有用的结构,它表示“……也一样”时。如:

He likes to watch TV, and so do I. 他喜欢看电视,我也一样。

When animals and plants disappear, so will man. 当动植物消失的时候,人类也会随之消失。

(2) 由于空格后的 if 条件状语从句的谓语用的是虚拟语气(这是很重要的信息),所以主句要用 would 而不用 will,即答案应选D。

4. “He will come tomorrow.” “But I’d rather he _____ the day after tomorrow.”

A. will come B. is coming

C. came D. had come

【陷阱】容易误选A或B。根据上文的 He will come tomorrow 以及下文的时间状语 the day after tomorrow 似乎都表明空白处应填一个一般将来时态。

【分析】但此题的最佳答案是 C。按照英语习惯,would rather 后接that 从句时,从句谓语通常要用虚拟语气,即用过去式表示现在或将来,用过去完成时表示过去。又如:

I’d rather you left right now. 我宁愿你现在就离开。

I would much rather it was forgotten. 我更愿这事被遗忘掉。

I’d rather he hadn’t told me about it. 我宁愿他没告诉我这事。

请再做以下试题(答案均为B):

(1) “Shall I come tomorrow ?” “I’d rather you ______.”

A. won’t B. didn’t

C. don’t D. wouldn’t

(2) “I’ve told him about it.” “But I’d rather you ______.”

A. didn’t B. hadn’t

C. don’t D. wouldn’t

(3) “He will take you as well.” “But I’d rather he ______.”

A. won’t B. didn’t

C. doesn’t D. wouldn’t

5. All the doctors in the hospital insisted that he ____ badly wounded and that he ____ at once.

A. should be; be operated on B. were; must be operated on

C. was; should be operated D. was; be operated on

【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。

【分析】最佳答案选 D。insist后的从句谓语有时用“should+动词原形”这样的虚拟语气,有时不用,具体要看该谓语动词所表示的含义。一般说来,若该谓语动词所表示的动作尚未发生,或尚未成为事实,则用虚拟语气;若该谓语动词所表示的动作已经发生,或已经成为事实,则要用陈述语气。分析上题的句意,可知只有选D最合适。请做以下类似试题(答案选B):

(1) The patient insisted that he _______ ill and _______ to the hospital.

A. wasn’t, wasn’t sent B. wasn’t, shouldn’t be sent

C. shouldn’t be, wasn’t sent D. shouldn’t be, shouldn’t be sent

(2) The man in prison insisted that he _______ nothing wrong and _______ set free.

A. should do, should be B. had done, should be

C. had done, had been D. should do, had been

(3) I advised that he ______ to the hospital at once, but he insisted that he ______ quite well then.

A. was sent; felt B. be sent; was feeling

C. he sent; feel D. should be sent; should feel

6. ______ smoking, he would not have got cancer in the lung.

A. Was he given up B. Had he given up

C. Did he give D. If he gave up

【陷阱】容易误选 D。

【分析】正确答案应选B。之所以不能选D,是因为时态前后有矛盾。由于主句谓语是would not have got,这表明是对过去事实作出的假设,所以从句谓语应该是 had given up,而不是像D项那样用一般过去时。另外,当虚拟条件句中有 had, should, were 等词时,通常可以省略 if,并将 had, should, were 提前置于句首。又如:

Were they to cease advertising, prices would come down.= If they were to cease advertising, prices would come down. 如果他们停止做广告,价钱会降下来。

Had I been there, I would have filmed the occasion.= If I had been there, I would have filmed the occasion. 如果我在那里,我会把那场面拍摄下来了。

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