状语从句知识点总结:时间状语从句

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■引导时间状语从句的从属连词

引导时间状语从句的从属连词很多,如较基本的有before, after, when, while, as, since, till, until, as soon as 等:

Things were different when I was a child. 我小时候情况与现在不同。

We must strike while the iron is hot. 我们要趁热打铁。

It’s a long time since I met you last. 从上次见到你,已有很长时间了。

He waited until she was about to leave. 他等着一直到她准备离开。

除以上基本的引导时间状语从句的从属连词外,还有些本来不是从属连词却可用作从属连词的词:

(1) 表示“一…就”的从属连词:the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, immediately, directly, instantly, once, no sooner…than, hardly…when等。如:

Immediately he came I told him the news. 他一来我就把消息告诉了他。

The moment I saw him I knew there was no hope. 我一看到他就知道没希望了。

We had no sooner set out than it began to rain. 我们刚出发就下雨了。

Once he arrives, we can start. 他一来我们就可以开始。

(2) 涉及time的几个从属连词:every time(每次),each time(每次),(the) next time(下次),any time(随时),the last time(上次),the first time(第一次)。如:

Every time I see her I’ll think of it. 每次我看到她,我就想起这事。

He felt nervous each time she spoke to him. 每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。

He didn’t tell me the last time I saw him. 我上次见到他时他没告诉我。

■与时间状语从句有关的时态问题

关于这个问题有两点值得注意:

(1) 当主句为将来时态或具有将来意义时,时间状语从句通常要用一般现在时表示将来意义,而不能直接使用将来时态:

Turn off the lights before you leave. 走前关灯。

I will tell him as soon as he arrives. 他一来我就告诉他。

(2) 与since 从句搭配的主句的时态通常是现在完成时态:

He has lived here since 1999. 自1999年以来,他就一直住在这儿。

Where have you been since I last saw you? 自我上次见到你之后你到哪里去了?

【注】在特定的语言环境中有时也可能用过去完成时或一般现在时:

It seems like years since we last met. 我们似乎几年未见面了。

Yesterday he told me that he hadn’t eaten anything since Tuesday. 他昨天告诉我自星期二以来他一直未吃任何东西。

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