英语语法定语从句知识点:定语从句基本概念

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概念

被修饰的词叫先行词。定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词)之 后。定语从句一般由关系代词来引导。关系代词必须放在定语从句之首。定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现 在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词引导的定语从句

关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系 代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。

1)who, whom, that

这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下:

Is he the man who/that wants to see you?

他就是想见你的人吗?(who/that在从句中作主语)

He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.

他就是我昨天见的那个人。(whom/that在从句中作宾语)

2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如:

They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去 帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that

它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等,例如:

A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农 村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作主语)

The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散 了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

关系副词引导的定语从句

关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。

1)when, where, why

关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介 词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。

Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理 由吗?

2)that代替关系副词

that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:

His father died the year (that / when / on which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝 世了。

He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

判断关系代词与关系副词

方法一: 用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词。及物动词后面无宾语,就 必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词。例如:

This is the mountain village where I stayed last year.

I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you.

判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示 出。)

(错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year.

(错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside.

(对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year.

(对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside.

习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用 上。

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正确选择出关系代 词/关系副词。

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