英语语法倒装句知识点:英语哪些成分可以省略

所属专题:小学英语语法  来源:沪江小学资源网    要点:英语语法大全  
编辑点评: 英语语法让很多学生都头疼,因为复杂难懂的句式和词组有时难以记忆。小编为大家整理了小学英语语法大全,本章主要介绍英语语法中的句子成分,希望对同学们的英语语法学习有所帮助!

1. 省略主语

(You) Help yourself to some fish, please. 请随便吃些鱼。

(I) Beg your pardon? 请再讲一遍。

(You) Cheer up. 振作起来。

(I) Thank you for telling me about it. 谢谢你告诉我这件事情。

(It) Doesn’t matter. 没关系。

(You) Come on, please. 请过来吧。

2. 省略主谓语或主谓语中一部分

(You come ) This way, please. 请这边走。

(I’ll go) After you, please. 前面请。

Why (do you ) not join us? 为什么不加入到我们一起来呢?

—How do you like that story? 你认为那个故事怎么样?

—(It is) Just so-so. 只是一般。

(Do you need ) Anything else? 还需要别的东西吗?

Are you a worker or (you are ) a farmer? 你是工人还是农民?

3. 省略谓语或谓语中的一部分

—Who wants it? 谁想要?

—I do. / Me. 我(想要) 。

—Who is in the room? 谁在房间里?

—Li Lei (is in it). 李蕾。

—Who is there? 谁在那儿?

—Me. 我。

当句子的谓语部分省略时,名词用普通格,而代词用宾格。

4. 省略宾语

—Who has a pen on him? 谁身上带有笔?

—I have (one). 我有。

—Where is Tommy now? 汤米现在在哪?

—I don’t know ( where Tommy is now). 我不知道。

—Does Sarah work harder than Alice? 莎拉比艾丽斯工作努力吗?

—It is hard to say (it). 这很难说。

5. 省略表语

—Are you an engineer?

你是工程师吗?

—Yes, I am ( an engineer).

是的,我是工程师。

—Is your grandpa better today?

你爷爷今天好点了吗?

—Yes, he is (better today).

是的,他好点了。

Beijing is more beautiful than it was (beautiful) a few years ago.

北京比几年前更漂亮了。

6. 省略状语

—What is Wei Fang doing on the playground? 魏芳在操场上干什么?

—She is playing basketball (on the playground). 她在打篮球。

—Why is Jim standing under the tree? 吉姆为什么站在树下?

—Because he is waiting for his friend (under the tree). 因为他在等朋友。

7. 省略小品词

(1) 感、知觉动词(see, hear, watch, feel, notice, observe, look at, listen to) 、使(have, make) 、让(let, leave) 动词后的不定式作宾补时,小品词to须省略。如:

Did you see a yellow dog pass here?

你看见一条黄狗从这儿过去了吗?

The boss made the workers work more than ten hours a day.

老板是工人们每天工作十多个小时。

Let me see.

让我想想。

(2) and连接两个不定式时,前一个不定式带to,而后一个不定式不能带to。如:

The teacher told the students to be quiet and write down the words on a sheet of paper.

老师要学生们安静下来,把单词写到一张纸上。

(3) but, except等连接两个不定式时,若but, except前面有动词do的某种形式,则他们后面的不定式的to须省略。如:

He could do nothing but wait there.

他只能等在那儿。

She had nothing to do except play.

她除了玩没有任何事做。

(4) 当不定式作表语时,如果主语从句中含有do的某种形式时,不定式的to 须省略。如:

The first thing she did was go and thank her dear teacher.

她所做的第一件事就是去感谢她亲爱的老师。

What we can do now is wait for help.

现在我们所能做的就是等待着援助。

(5) help后面的不定式的to可省略也可不省略。如:

Can you come and help me (to) write the essay, please?

请来帮助我写这篇文章好吗?

8. 连词that的省略

(1) 宾语从句中的that 可以省略,但当多个宾语从句并列时,只能省略第一个that。如:

He told us (that) his bike was broken down on his way here.

他告诉我们说,他在来这里的路上,但车坏了。

She said (that) she wanted to learn English well and that she wanted to be an translator.

她说她想把英语学好,并且想当翻译。

(2) 定语从句中的that作从句中的宾语时,that可以省略。如:

The man (that) you met just now is Mike’s brother.

你刚才会到的那个人是迈克的兄弟。

The dictionary (that) you bought yesterday is very good.

你昨天买的那本词典很好。

(3) 当主语中有do的某种形式时,表语从句前面的that 可以省略。如:

The first thing I want to do is (that) I can learn my lessons well.

我想做的第一件事就是把功课学好。

What I like to do now is (that) we can have a good rest.

我现在想做的事就是好好的休息一会儿。

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